March 1, 2024

JAMB Syllabus for Biology: A Comprehensive Guide | This article is dedicated to the latest JAMB syllabus for Biology. Let’s begin by understanding what a syllabus is. Essentially, a syllabus is a document that outlines all the topics to be covered in an examination or class. In the context of JAMB, the syllabus comprises a list of topics that students are required to study in preparation for the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME).

JAMB Biology Syllabus

If you are gearing up for the UTME conducted by the Joint Admission Matriculation Board, fear not. Newsedung.com is here to provide all the necessary guidance to help you excel, excluding any form of expos.

For those participating in the upcoming UTME and in need of the outlined topics for Jamb Biology preparation, this article is tailored for you. Follow these steps before obtaining the 2024/2025 Jamb Form:

  1. Choose a Course: Decide on the course you wish to pursue.
  2. Conduct Research on the Course: Explore and gather information about the chosen course.
  3. Check the O’level Requirement: Verify the O’level requirements for the selected course.
  4. Verify JAMB Subject Combination: Finally, confirm the JAMB subject combination for the course. If Biology is part of the subject combination, you are good to proceed.

JAMB Biology Syllabus 2024/2025 General Objectives: The primary objectives of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Biology are as follows:

  1. Demonstrate Sufficient Knowledge: Showcase ample knowledge of the concepts of interdependence and the unity of life.
  2. Account for Continuity of Life: Explain the continuity of life through reorganization, inheritance, and evolution.
  3. Apply Biological Principles: Apply biological principles and concepts to everyday life, particularly in matters concerning the individual, society, the environment, community health, and the economy.

This guide is designed to assist candidates in their preparation for the JAMB examination, ensuring they achieve the outlined course objectives. Best of luck in your JAMB Biology preparation.

Jamb Syllabus for Biology 2024/2025

Part A: Variety of Organisms

1. Living organisms:

(a) Characteristics

(b) Cell structure and functions of cell Components

(c) Level of organization

i. Cell e.g. Amoeba, cheek cell

ii. Tissue, e.g. epithelial tissues

iii. Organ, e.g. leaf and heart

iv. Systems, e.g. reproductive

v. Organisms e.g. Chlamydomonas

2. Evolution among the following:

(a). Monera (prokaryotes), e.g. bacteria and blue-green algae.

(b). Protista (protozoans and protophyta), e.g. Amoeba, Euglena and Paramecium

(c). Fungi, e.g. mushrooms and Rhizopus.

(d). Plantae (plants)

i. Thallophyta (e.g. Spirogyra)

ii. Bryophyta (mosses and liverworts) e.g. Bryachymenium and Merchantia.

iii. Pteridophyta (ferns) e.g. Dryopteris.

iv. Spermatophyta (Gymnospermae and Angiospermae)

– Gymnosperms e.g. Cycads and conifers.

– Angiosperms (monocots, e.g. maize; dicots, e.g. water leaf)

(e). Animalia (animals)

i. Invertebrates

– coelenterate (e.g. Hydra)

– Platyhelminthes (flatworms) e.g. Taenia

– Nematoda (roundworms)

– Annelida (e.g. earthworm)

– Arthropoda (insects) e.g. Millipedes, ticks, mosquitoes, cockroaches, housefly, bees, butterfly

– Mollusca (e.g. snails)

ii. Multicellular animals (vertebrates)

– Pisces (cartilaginous and bony fish)

– Amphibia (e.g. toads and frogs)

– Reptilia (e.g. lizards, snakes, and turtles)

– Aves (birds)

– Mammalia (mammals)

(a) Structural/functional and behavioral adaptations of Organism

(b). Adaptive coloration and its functions

(c). Behavioral Adaptations in social animals

(d). Structural adaptations in organisms.

Part B: Form & Functions

(a)Internal structure of a flowering plant

i. Root

ii. Stem

iii. Leaf

(b). Internal structure of a mammal

2. Nutrition

(a). Modes of nutrition:

i. Autotrophic

ii. Heterotrophic

(b) Types of Nutrition

(c) Plant nutrition:

i. Photosynthesis

ii. Mineral requirements (macro and micro-nutrients)

(d) Animal Nutrition:

i. Classes of food substances; carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils, vitamins, mineral salts, and water

ii. Food tests (e.g. starch, reducing sugar, protein, oil, fat, etc.

iii. The mammalian tooth (structures, types, and functions)

iv. Mammalian alimentary canal

v. Nutrition process (ingestion, digestion, absorption, and assimilation of digested

food.

3. Transport

(a). Need for transportation

(b). Materials for transportation. Excretory products, gases, manufactured food, digested food, nutrient, water and hormones)

(c). Channels for transportation

i. Mammalian circulatory system (heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries)

ii Plant vascular system (phloem and xylem)

(d). Media and processes of mechanism for transportation.

4. Respiration

(a). Respiratory organs and surfaces

(b). The mechanism of gaseous exchange in:

i. Plants

ii. Mammals

(c). Aerobic respiration

(d). Anaerobic respiration

5. Excretion

(a). Types of excretory structures: contractile vacuole, flame cell, nephridium, Malpighian tubule, kidney, stoma, and lenticel.

(b). Excretory mechanisms:

i. Kidneys

ii. lungs

ii. skin

(c). Excretory products of plants

6. Support and movement

(a). Tropic, tactic, nastic, and sleep movements in plants

(b). Supporting tissues in animals

(c). Types and functions of the skeleton

i. Exoskeleton

ii. Endoskeleton

iii. Functions of the skeleton in animals

7. Reproduction

(a). A sexual reproduction

i. Fission as in Paramecium

ii. Budding as in yeast

iii. Natural vegetative propagation

iv. Artificial vegetative propagation.

(b). sexual reproduction in flowering plants

i. Floral parts and their functions

ii. Pollination and fertilization

iii. products of sexual reproduction

(c). Reproduction in mammals

i. structures and functions of the male and female reproductive organs

ii. Fertilization and development. (Fusion of gametes)

8. Growth

(a). Meaning of growth

(b). Germination of seeds and condition necessary for germination of seeds.

9. Co-ordination and control

(a). Nervous coordination:

i. the components, structure, and functions of the central nervous system;

ii. The components and functions of the peripheral nervous systems;

iii. Mechanism of transmission of impulses;

iv. Reflex action

(b). The sense organs

i. skin (tactile)

ii. nose (olfactory)

iii. tongue (taste)

iv. eye (sight)

v. ear (auditory)

(c). Hormonal control

i. Animal hormonal system

– Pituitary

– thyroid

– parathyroid

– adrenal gland

– pancreas

– gonads

ii. Plant hormones

(phytohormones)

(d). Homeostasis

i. Body temperature regulation

ii. Salt and water regulation

Part C: Ecology

1. Factors affecting the distribution of Organisms

i. Abiotic

ii. Biotic

2. Symbiotic interactions of plants and animals

(a) Food chains, food webs, and trophic levels

(b) Energy flow in the ecosystem.

(c) Nutrient cycling in nature

i. carbon cycle

ii. water cycle

iii. Nitrogen cycle

3. Natural Habitats

(a) Aquatic (e.g. ponds, streams, lakes seashores, and mangrove swamps)

(b) Terrestrial/arboreal (e.g. tree-tops of oil palm, abandoned farmland or a dry grassy (savanna) field, and burrow or hole.

4. Local (Nigerian) Biomes

(a). Tropical rainforest

(b). Guinea savanna (southern and northern)

(c). Sudan Savanna

(d). Desert

(e). Highlands of montane forests and grasslands of the Obudu, Jos, and Mambilla Plateau.

5. The Ecology of Populations:

(a) Population density and overcrowding.

(b) Factors affecting population sizes:

i. Biotic (e.g. food, pest, disease, predation, competition, reproductive ability).

ii. Abiotic (e.g. temperature, space, light, rainfall, topography, pressure, pH,

etc.

(c). Ecological succession

i. Primary succession

ii. secondary succession

6. SOIL

(a) characteristics of different types of soil (sandy, loamy, clayey)

i. Soil structure

ii. porosity, capillarity, and humus content

iii. Components of the soil

i. inorganic

ii. organic

iii. soil organisms

(b) Soil fertility:

i. loss of soil fertility

ii. Renewal and maintenance of soil fertility

7. Humans and Environment

(a) Diseases:

i. Common and endemic diseases.

ii. Easily transmissible diseases and disease

syndrome such as:

– poliomyelitis

– cholera

– tuberculosis

– sexually transmitted disease/syndrome (gonorrhea, syphilis, AIDS, etc.

(b). Pollution and its control

(i) sources, types, effects, and methods of control.

(ii) Sanitation and sewage

(c) Conservation of Natural Resources

(d) Game reserves and National parks

Part D: Heredity and Variations

1. Variation in Population

(a). Morphological variations in the physical appearance of individuals.

(i) size (height, weight)

(ii) Colour (skin, eye, hair, coat of animals, scales, and feathers.

(iii) Fingerprints

(b). Physiological variation

(i) Ability to roll tongue

(ii) Ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)

(iii) Blood groups

(c). Application of discontinuous variation in crime detection, blood transfusion, and determination of paternity.

2. Heredity

(a) Inheritance of characters in organisms;

i) Heritable and non-heritable characters.

(b) Chromosomes – the basis of heredity;

(i) Structure

(ii) Process of transmission of hereditary characters from parents to offspring.

(c) Probability in genetics and sex determination.

(d) Application of the principles of heredity in:

i) Agriculture

(ii) Medicine

(e). Sex–linked characters e.g. baldness, hemophilia, color blindness, etc.

Part E: Evolution

1. Theories of evolution

(a) Lamarck’s theory

(b) Darwin’s theory

(c) organic theory

2. Evidence of evolution

Summary of the JAMB Syllabus for Biology

There are five major topics and fifty-seven (57) subtopics in the biology portion of the JAMB/UTME syllabus. The JAMB syllabus’s detailed topics and subtopics are listed below. Ecology is the first topic discussed, and a variety of organisms is the last.

Let’s list the topics and their subtopics now.

1. ECOLOGY

There are Fifteen (15) sub-topics in this topic. They are;

1. FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANISMS (Biotic Abiotic)

After reading the above topic, candidates should be able to;

  1. deduce the effects of temperature; rainfall, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, altitude, salinity, turbidity, pH, and edaphic (soil) conditions on the distribution of organisms.
  2. use appropriate equipment (e.g. Secchi disc, thermometer, rain gauge, etc) to measure abiotic factors.
  3. describe how the activities of plants/animals (particularly humans) affect the distribution of organisms.

2. LOCAL (NIGERIAN) BIOMES

After reading the above topic, candidates should be able to;

  1. locate biomes in regions.
  2. apply the knowledge of the features of the listed local biomes in determining the characteristics of different regions of Nigeria.

3. NATURAL HABITATS (Aquatic and Terrestrial/arboreal)

After reading the above topic, candidates should be able to;

  1. associate plants and animals with each of these habitats.
  2. relate adaptive features to the habitats in which an organism lives.

4. SOIL (Characteristics of different types of soil, Components of the soil, Soil fertility

After reading the above topic “Soil”, candidates should be able to;

  1.  identify physical properties of different soil types based on simple measurement of particle size, porosity, or water retention ability.
  2. determine the amounts of air, water, humus, and capillarity in different soil types experimentally.
  3. relate soil characteristics, types, and components to the healthy growth of plants.
  4. relate such factors as loss of inorganic matter, compaction, leaching, erosion of the topsoil, and repeated cropping with one variety.
  5. apply the knowledge of the practice of contour ridging, terracing, mulching, poly-cropping, strip-cropping, use of organic and inorganic fertilizers, crop rotation, shifting cultivation, etc to enhance soil conservation.

5. CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES

After reading the above topic, candidates should be able to;

  1. apply the various methods of conservation of both renewable and non-renewable natural resources for the protection of our environment for present and future generations.
  2. Outline the benefits of conserving natural resources and prevention of desertification.
  3. identify the bodies responsible for the conservation of resources at the national and international levels (e.g. Nigerian Conservation Foundation (NCF), Federal Ministry of Environment, Nigeria National Parks, World Wildlife Foundation (WWF), International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and their activities.
  4. asses their activities.

6. DISEASES (Common and endemic diseases,

After reading the above topic, candidates should be able to;

  1. identify ecological conditions that favor the spread of common endemic and potentially epidemic diseases e.g. malaria, meningitis, dracunculiasis, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, typhoid fever, cholera, etc.
  2. relate the biology of the vector or agent of each disease with its spread and control.
  3. use the knowledge of the causative organisms, mode of transmission, and symptoms of the listed diseases for their prevention/treatment/control.
  4. apply the principles of inoculation and vaccination to disease prevention.

7. GAME RESERVES AND NATURAL PARKS

After reading the above topic, candidates should be able to Know the location and importance of game reserves and National parks in Nigeria.

8. POPULATION AND ITS CONTROL (Sources, types, effects, and methods of control)

After reading the above topic, candidates should be able to;

  1. categorize pollution into air, water, and soil pollution.
  2. relate the effects of common pollutants to human health and environmental degradation.
  3. determine the methods by which each pollutant may be controlled.
  4. examine the importance of sanitation with an emphasis on solid waste sewage disposal, community health, and personal hygiene.
  5. assess the roles and functions of international and national health agencies (e.g. World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations International Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF), International Red Cross Society (IRCS), and the Ministries of Health and Environment.

9. ENERGY FLOW IN THE ECOSYSTEM

After reading the topic above, candidates should be able to know the food chains and webs.

10. NUTRIENT CYCLING IN NATURE (Carbon, Water, and Nitrogen circle)

After reading the topic above, candidates should be able to;

  1. describe the cycle and its significance including the balance of atmospheric oxygen and carbon (IV) oxide and global warming.
  2. assess the effects of the water cycle on other nutrient cycles.
  3. relate the roles of bacteria and leguminous plants in the cycling of nitrogen.

11. SYMBIOTIC INTERACTIONS OF PLANTS

While reading the topic above, kindly focus your attention on;

  1. Factors that bring about competition.
  2. Intra and inter-specific competition
  3. Relationship between competition and succession.

After reading the above topic, candidates should be able to;

  1. determine appropriate examples of symbiosis, parasitism, saprophytism, commensalism, mutualism, amensalism, competition, predation, and cooperation among organisms.
  2. associate the distribution of organisms with food chains and food webs in particular habitats.

12. ADAPTATION FOR SURVIVAL

After reading the above topic, candidates should be able to;

  1.  relate the increase in population, diseases, shortage of food and space with intra- and inter-specific competition.
  2. determine niche differentiation as a means of reducing intra-specific completion.
  3. relate competition to succession.

13. ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION (Primary and Secondary Succession)

After reading the above topic, candidates should be able to trace the sequence in succession to the climax stage of stability in plant population.

While reading the topic above, kindly focus your attention on;

  1. Factors that bring about competition.
  2. Intra and inter-specific competition
  3. Relationship between competition and succession.

14. FACTORS AFFECTING POPULATION SIZES

After reading the above topic, candidates should be able to;

  1. deduce the effect of these factors on the size of the population.
  2. determine the interactions between biotic and abiotic factors, e.g. drought or scarcity of water which leads to food shortage and lack of space which causes an increase in disease rates.

15. POPULATION DENSITY AND OVERCROWDING

After reading the topic above, candidates should be able to;

  1. determine the reasons for rapid changes in the human population and the consequences of overcrowding.
  2. compute/calculate density as the number of organisms per unit area.

2. EVOLUTION

This is the second topic and it has just two sub-topics. The sub-topics include;

1. EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION

After reading the topic above; the candidate should be able to;

  1. provide evidence for evolution such as fossil records, comparative anatomy, physiology and embryology.
  2. trace evolutionary trends in plants and animals.
  3. provide evidence for modern evolutionary theories such as genetic studies and the role of mutation.

2. THEORIES OF EVOLUTION

After reading the topic above, the candidate should be able to;

  1. relate organic evolution as the sum total of all adaptive changes that have taken place over a long period of time resulting in the diversity of forms, structures, and functions among organisms.
  2. examine the contributions of Lamarck and Darwin to the theory of evolution.
  3. no evidence in support of organic evolution.

3. FORM AND FUNCTIONS

This is the third topic and it has thirty sub-topics. The 30 sub-topics include;

1. GROWTH

After reading the topic above, the candidate should be able to;

  1. apply the knowledge of the conditions necessary for germination on plant growth.
  2. differentiate between epigeal and hypogeal germination.

2. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF A FLOWERING PLANT (Root stem and leaf)

After reading the topic above, the candidate should be able to;

  1. identify the transverse sections of these organs.
  2. relate the structure of these organs to their functions.
  3. identify supporting tissues in plants (collenchyma) sclerenchyma, xylem, and phloem fibres).
  4. describe the distribution of supporting tissues in roots, stem, and leaf.

3. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF A MAMMAL

After reading the topic above, the candidate should be able to;

  1. examine the arrangement of the mammalian internal organs.
  2. describe the appearance and position of the digestive, reproductive, and excretory organs.

4. HOMEOSTASIS

After reading Homeostasis, candidates should be able to relate the function of hormones to regulating the levels of materials inside the body. Meanwhile, while reading the topic above, focus make sure you read up the;

  1. Body temperature regulation.
  2. Salt and water regulation.

5. HORMONAL CONTROL (Animal and Plant Hormone)

After reading the “Hormonal Control, make sure you are able to;

  1. locate the listed endocrine glands in animals.
  2. relate the hormone produced by each of these glands to their functions.
  3. examine the effects of various phytohormones (e.g. auxins, gibberellin, cytokinin, and ethylene) on growth, tropism, flowering, fruit ripening, and leaf abscission.

6. NERVOUS CO-ORDINATION

While reading the topic, focus on;

  1.  The components, structure, and functions of the central nervous system.
  2. The components and functions of the peripheral nervous systems.
  3. Mechanism of transmission of impulses.
  4. Reflex action.

After reading the nervous co-ordination, make sure you are able to;

  1. apply the knowledge of the structure and function of the central nervous system in the coordination of body functions in organisms.
  2. illustrate reflex actions such as blinking of the eyes, knee jerk etc.
  3. differentiate between reflex and voluntary actions as well as conditioned reflexes such as salivation, riding a bicycle, and swimming.

7. THE SENSE ORGANS

While reading the sense organs, focus on;

  1. Skin (tactile)
  2. Nose (olfactory)
  3. Tongue (taste)
  4. Eye (sight)
  5. Ear (auditory).

After reading the sense organs, make sure you are able to;

  1. associate the listed sense organs with their functions.
  2. apply the knowledge of the structure and functions of these sense organs in detecting and correcting their defects.

8. EXCRETORY MECHANISMS

While reading the excretory mechanisms, focus your attention on;

  1. Kidneys
  2. Lungs
  3. Skin.

After reading the excretory mechanisms, make sure you are able to;

  1. relate the structure of the kidneys to the excretory and osmoregulatory functions.
  2. identify the functions and excretory products of the lungs and the skin.

9. EXCRETORY PRODUCTS OF PLANTS

After reading the excretory products of plants make sure you are able to deduce the economic importance of the excretory products of plants, e.g. carbon (IV) oxide, oxygen, tannins, resins, gums, mucilage, alkaloids etc.

10. TYPES OF EXCRETORY STRUCTURES

While reading the types of excretory structures, focus your attention on;

  1. contractile vacuole
  2. Flame cell
  3. Nephridium
  4. Malpighian tubule
  5. Kidney
  6. Stoma and lenticel.

After reading the types of excretory structures, candidates should be able to;

  1. define the meaning and state the significance of excretion.
  2.  relate the characteristics of each structure with functions.

11. ANIMAL NUTRITION

After reading the Animal Nutrition, candidates should be able to;

  1. indicate the sources of the various classes of food;
  2. relate the importance and deficiency e.g. scurvy, rickets, kwashiorkor, etc. of each class;
  3. determine the importance of a balanced diet.
  4. detect the presence of the listed food items from the result of a given experiment.
  5. describe the structure of a typical mammalian tooth;
  6. differentiate the types of mammalian teeth and relate their structures to their functions.
  7. compare the dental formulae of man, sheep, and dog.
  8. relate the structure of the various components of the alimentary canal and its accessory organs (liver, pancreas, and gall bladder) to their functions.
  9. identify the general characteristics of digestive enzymes;
  10. associate enzymes with the digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats;
  11. determine the end products of these classes of food.

12. MODES OF NUTRITION (Autotrophic and Heterotrophic)

After reading the modes of nutrition, candidates should be able to;

  1. compare the photosynthetic and chemosynthetic modes of nutrition.
  2. provide examples from both flowering and non-flowering plants.
  3. compare autotrophic and heterotrophic modes of nutrition.

13. PLANT NUTRITION

After reading plan nutrition, you should be able to;

  1. differentiate the light and dark reactions, and state conditions necessary for photosynthesis.
  2. determine the necessity of light, carbon (IV) oxide, and chlorophyll in photosynthesis.
  3. detect the presence of starch in a leaf as evidence of photosynthesis.
  4. identify macro-and micro-elements required by plants.
  5. recognize the deficiency symptoms of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium.

14. TYPES OF NUTRITION

After reading the types of nutrition, candidates should be able to;

  1. differentiate the following examples:
    1. holozoic (sheep and man)
    2. Parasitic (roundworm, tapeworm, and Loranthus)
    3. saprophytic (Rhizopus and mushroom)
    4. carnivorous plants (sundew and bladderwort)
  2. determine their nutritional value.

15. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION (Under Reproduction)

While reading the above topic please focus on;

  1. Fission as in Paramecium.
  2. Budding as in yeast.
  3. Natural vegetative propagation.
  4. Artificial vegetative propagation.

After reading the above topic, candidates should be able to;

  1. differentiate between asexual and sexual reproduction.
  2. apply natural vegetative propagation in crop production and multiplication.
  3. apply to graft, budding, and layering in agricultural practices.

16. REPRODUCTION IN MAMMALS

After reading the reproduction in mammals, please make sure you are able to;

  1. differentiate between male and female reproductive organs.
  2. relate their structure and function to the production of offspring.
  3. describe the fusion of gametes as a process of fertilization.
  4. relate the effects of the mother’s health, nutrition, and indiscriminate use of drugs on the developmental stages of the embryo up to birth.
  5. Modern methods of regulating reproduction e.g. invitro fertilization and birth control.

17. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN FLOWERING PLANTS

After reading the topic above, make sure you are able to;

  1. relate parts of flowers to their functions and the reproductive process.
  2. deduce the advantages of cross-pollination.
  3. deduce the different types of placentation that develop into simple, aggregate, multiple, and succulent fruits.

18. AEROBIC RESPIRATION

After reading the topic above make sure you are able to;

  1. examine the role of oxygen in the liberation of energy for the activities of living organisms.
  2. deduce the effect of an insufficient supply of oxygen to the muscles.

19. ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION

After reading the topic above, make sure you are able to;

  1. use yeast cells and sugar solution to demonstrate the process of fermentation.
  2. know the economic importance of yeasts.

20. RESPIRATION

After reading respiration, make sure you are able to;

  1. examine the significance of respiration.
  2. describe a simplified outline of the chemical process involved in glycolysis and Krebs cycle with reference to the role of ATP.
  3. deduce from an experimental setup, gaseous exchange and products, exchange, and production of heat energy during respiration.

21. RESPIRATORY ORGANS AND SURFACES

After reading the topic above, make sure you can describe the following respiratory organs and surfaces with organisms in which they occur; body surface, gill, trachea, lungs, stomata, and lenticel.

22. THE MECHANISM OF GASEOUS EXCHANGE (Under Respiration)

After reading the topic above, make sure you are able to;

  1. describe the mechanism for the opening and closing of the stomata.
  2. determine respiratory movements in these animals.

23. SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT

After reading the topic: Support and Movement, make sure you are able to;

  1. determine the need for support and movement in organisms.
  2. identify supporting tissues in plants (collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem, and phloem fibers).
  3. describe the distribution of supporting tissues in roots, stem, and leaf.

24. SUPPORTING TISSUES IN ANIMALS (Under Support and Movement)

After reading the topic above, the candidate should be able to;

  1. relate the location of chitin, cartilage, and bone to their supporting function.
  2.  relate the structure and the general layout of the mammalian skeleton to their supportive, locomotive, and respiratory functions.
  3.  differentiate types of joints using appropriate examples.

25. TROPIC, TACTIC, NASTIC, AND SLEEP MOVEMENTS IN PLANTS

After reading the topic above, make sure you know how to;

  1. relate the response of plants to the stimuli of light, water, gravity, and touch.
  2.  identify the regions of growth in roots and shoots and the roles of auxins in tropism.

26. TYPES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETON

After reading the topic above, make sure you are able to apply the protective, supportive, locomotive, and respiratory functions of the skeleton to the well-being of the animal.

27. CHANNELS FOR TRANSPORTATION

28. MATERIALS FOR TRANSPORTATION

29. MEDIA AND PROCESSES OF MECHANISM FOR TRANSPORTATION

30. NEED FOR TRANSPORTATION

4. HEREDITY AND VARIATIONS

This is the 4th topic and it has four sub-topics which include;

  1.  HEREDITY
  2. VARIATION IN POPULATION – APPLICATION OF DISCONTINUOUS VARIATION IN CRIME DETECTION, BLOOD TRANSFUSION, AND DETERMINATION OF PATERNITY
  3. VARIATION IN POPULATION – MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS IN THE PHYSICAL APPEARANCE OF INDIVIDUALS
  4. VARIATION IN POPULATION – PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIATION

VARIETY OF ORGANISMS

This is the final/fifth topic and it consists of 6 sub-topics which include;

  1. ADAPTIVE COLOURATION AND ITS FUNCTIONS
  2.  BEHAVIOURAL ADAPTATIONS IN SOCIAL ANIMALS
  3. EVOLUTION AMONG THE FOLLOWING
  4. LIVING ORGANISMS
  5. STRUCTURAL ADAPTATIONS IN ORGANISMS
  6. STRUCTURAL/FUNCTIONAL AND BEHAVIOURAL ADAPTATIONS OF ORGANISMS

That’s all you need to read if you want to score above 90 in Biology. It is no joke, it’s possible just to believe. Prepare hard and pray. Please don’t forget to play a little.

  • Ndu, F.O. C. Ndu, Abun A. and Aina J.O. (2001) Senior Secondary School Biology: Books 1 -3, Lagos: Longman.
  • Odunfa, S.A. (2001) Essential of Biology, Ibadan: Heinemann.
  • Ogunniyi M.B. Adebisi A.A. and Okojie J.A. (2000) Biology for Senior Secondary Schools: Books 1 – 3, Macmillan.
  • Ramalingam, S.T. (2005) Modern Biology, SS Science Series. New Edition, AFP
  • Stan. (2004) Biology for Senior Secondary Schools. Revised Edition, Ibadan: Heinemann
  • Stone R.H. and Cozens, A.B.C. (1982) Biology for West African Schools. Longman
  • Usua, E.J. (1997) Handbook of practical Biology 2nd Edition, University Press, Limited

It is advised that you read through the topics listed here as they will aid in your more focused study and reading for the JAMB Biology exam.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *